Note: AnticiPol is a real thing, and works along the lines of what’s described here (though the DOJ doesn’t certify policing augmentations, yet). UbiquiPol is entirely made up but plausible given current technology. Behavior analysis programs exist, though they’re entirely prone to false positives and carry wickedly inherent bias. Investigational databases exist currently. Automatic querying and cross-referencing of multiple databases already exists. Shopping malls use MAC tracking already, for god’s sake.
We’re less than a year out from this.
The following is a brief summary of events that occurred on July 22, 2017.
At approximately 1455 hours I was directed by Sergeant Michael Wesley to deviate from my traditionally assigned patrol area and conduct a combination foot/vehicle patrol an area around Snow Ridge Park identified by AnticiPol as particularly at-risk for property crime during my shift. AnticiPol is a private software package that analyzes past crime statistics and area features and compiles a list of locations where crimes may be reasonably expected to occur at certain times. The Snow Ridge Police Department utilized AnticiPol successfully for over a year and it is certified by the Department of Justice as a verified Policing Augmentation Tool.
As my patrol began at 1500 hours I proceeded to the defined zone and parked my cruiser on Main Street. I then initiated foot patrol southbound on Main Street, intending to take a right on Cutlass Way approximately 575 feet south of my police cruiser. I would then take another right on Elm Ave, continue northbound to Poplar Street and then eastbound back to Main Street. Each of these streets is a public way in the city of Snow Ridge. This prospective patrol route was established by AnticiPol to also keep me within signal range of my cruiser so that body camera video and audio could be relayed back to the UbiquiPol servers for automatic recording, analysis and feedback.
The AnticiPol report generated for my shift indicated the high likelihood of property crime in this specific area between 1500 and 1900 hours, to wit vandalism. The Main Street/Elm Ave area is known to me as an area in which vandalism has occurred repeatedly over the last six months. It has largely consisted of the spraypainting or “tagging” of various names and political statements on businesses in the area, causing damage to their buildings and profitability. With the benefit of AnticiPol’s report I therefore began specifically looking for subjects committing, or about to commit, vandalism.
In preparation for casual encounters with the populace I activated my UbiquiPol body camera and initiated my patrol. I then had approximately four casual encounters with citizens on Main Street. Utilizing my training and experience as a law enforcement officer I evaluated each person according to my general impression of the typical spraypaint vandal. I did not find any suspect meeting the likely criteria. UbiquiPol similarly performed evaluations according to its own programming which, after attending an 8 hour class on its operation, is known to me. UbiquiPol transmits images via a repeated radio system in the cruiser to UP servers in the state of Nevada. UP computers analyze the video and audio and provide feedback to the Mobile Data Terminal Tablet each officer carries on patrol. The UP feedback includes the result of facial recognition and cross-references a number of databases, including that of the Registry of Motor Vehicles (RMV), Board of Probation (BOP), investigational databases such as the Investigational Information Relay System (IIRS), our local police department files, and those databases of UbiquiPol’s corporate partners. It then returns information ranging from an individual’s driving and criminal records to investigational entries on the IIRS network to corporate intelligence shared by UP. In addition the UP data is analyzed according to UP’s own algorithms for anomalous material. According to metrics established by UP if anything suspicious is detected an alert is sent to a Wireless Investigational Notification System wrapped around my left wrist, and the WINS unit vibrates.
A corresponding profile on each individual was transmitted to my MDTT and available for reading. I reached Cutlass Way and reviewed the material before continuing after being satisfied no person encountered fit the profile of a property criminal.
Approximately 75 feet westbound on Cutlass Way the WINS unit vibrated and alerted me to suspicious material – in this case, an individual approximately 50 feet further westbound and walking away from me had a backpack slung over one shoulder. WINS advised that subjects prone to PROPERTY CRIME – VANDALISM – SPRAYPAINTING/TAGGING often use such bags to transport spraypaint cans and other contraband. WINS further advised that the individual in question had been looking eastbound when I reached the intersection of Main Street and Cutlass Way and had immediately turned and begun proceeding away from me, an action classified as FURTIVE MOVEMENT – AVOIDANCE. Due to the subject’s furtive movement WINS did not capture a clear image of their face and was consequently unable to provide a complete profile. According to department procedure, upon the notification of elements of suspicion, I used the WINS unit to request patrol guidance. The WINS unit advised as follows: “SUSPICION INDEX 0.7 – INITIATE CONTACT LVL III.” According to my training I knew this to mean that, having been computed higher than 0.5, this individual’s Suspicion Index along with my own training and experience combined to provide reasonable suspicious that he had committed, was committing or was about to commit the crime of vandalism.
I initiated contact with the unknown subject by calling to them. The party paused mid step but did not turn around. I called again and requested they come over to me. The WINS unit provided feedback that their servers considered this pause to be FURTIVE and may indicate criminal consciousness of a previous crime and/or intent to commit a crime by way of fleeing from a lawful officer. The subject turned to face me and appeared to be a white male with close cut brown hair, approximately 19 years of age, approximately 5 feet 8 inches. He wore blue jeans and a grey hooded sweatshirt or “hoodie.”
The subject approached me and I requested his name. The subject replied “None of your business.” I stated I was a police officer and he was required to provide his name at this time. The subject replied “I haven’t done anything, you don’t need my name.” At or around this time the WINS unit vibrated to notify me of new information. I requested the subject stand still and kept him in view while retrieving my MDTT. UbiquiPol had processed the party’s face according to procedure and run several pre-programmed database queries.
The subject in front of me was positively identified as DAVIES, MARK (see attached face sheet and supplementals). The MDTT first provided his Registry of Motor Vehicles driver’s license photo from the state of Colorado and through visual inspection I found the subject and DAVIES to be the same person. As this investigation did not involve vehicle issues I skipped past the RMV section. The Board of Probation data stated that DAVIES had three recorded arrests, two for trespassing and one for disorderly conduct, all closed. The Investigational Information Relay System provided several investigational notes entered by other law enforcement agencies. They provided general information on DAVIES, addresses, known associates and specific intelligence. DAVIES is known to two other law enforcement agencies in the state of Colorado to be an active member of several political organizations on record as instigating civil disturbances, impeding the free movement of traffic, and property damage. Finally, UP corporate partners provided similar intelligence on DAVIES as well as current and suspected cell phone numbers, MAC addresses of known or suspected devices, email addresses, intermittent GPS data and other information. UPCORP data indicated that DAVIES possessed one of the suspected devices and had left the wi-fi active, broadcasting a MAC known to him or his immediate surroundings, further confirming that the subject was indeed DAVIES.
At this time the dispatcher informed me over the radio earpiece that they received a call on a past vandalism approximately a block away. OurBank (Snow Ridge Branch) manager HOLMES, SKYLER called to report finding obscene graffiti on the side of the building. The graffiti consisted of “FORECLOSE THIS” with an image of a hand with middle finger extended. See witness statement from HOLMES, S as well as supplementals 911 recording and digital image attached to this report.
I pressed a button on the MDTT requesting a second officer with the flow of traffic/non-emergency and replaced the MDTT on my belt. Subject DAVIES shifted his feet – it is unknown at this time whether he was uncomfortable standing in place or preparing to unlawfully flee – and I observed an audible clinking sound from the backpack slung over one shoulder. Through knowledge and experience that sound reasonably appeared to be the sound of several metal/plastic cans rubbing against each other, such as cans of spraypaint. I observed DAVIES tense up and stare at me. DAVIES became angry and demanded to know if he was being arrested. I stated he was being interacted with in the process of an investigation. DAVIES requested the presence of his attorney. I stated we do not invite attorneys to participate in field interactions. DAVIES then told me to “fuck off with your fascist bullshit.” DAVIES continued to tense up in a manner familiar to me through training and experience that he was about to unlawfully flee or assault me. It was at this time for both our safety I assisted DAVIES to the ground in order to prevent him from fleeing or attacking me. DAVIES stayed on the ground until Officer Wilcock arrived.
I requested Officer Wilcock take over primary control of DAVIES and he did so. I retrieved my MDTT to enter elements in the Interaction Report for DAVIES, most of which backfill automatically. I also entered the reported OurBank vandalism as possibly associated. Ubiquipol alerted me that the MAC address for DAVIES cellphone had been within 25 feet of OurBank – Snow Ridge Branch for approximately six minutes around the time of the crime.
I asked DAVIES if he had just vandalized OurBank. DAVIES again repeated “fuck off” and requested access to an attorney. I asked what was in his backpack. DAVIES stated he did not give consent for any search. Given the sum of all information at hand including DAVIES’ furtive movements and attempted evasion, his records and being placed at the scene of the crime probable cause was established to search DAVIES backpack. This search was also conducted for the safety of all at the scene, and according to Snow Ridge Police Department guidelines. I unzipped the backpack and observed several cans of what appeared to be spraypraint, tape, and several heavy pieces of cardboard that appeared to be stencils.
DAVIES was read his rights and placed under arrest at that time for property crime, to wit: vandalism, as well as disorderly conduct and resisting arrest. He was transported in a marked cruiser directly to court for a magistrate hearing.
Officer Blake Summerhill
Snow Ridge Police Department
Report approved by:
Sergeant Timothy Carson
Snow Ridge Police Department
Face sheet: DAVIES, MARC
AnticiPol predictive report
HOLMES, SKYLER witness statement
HOLMES, SKYLER 911 call recording
Photographs: vandalized property, arrestee’s property
MACTRACK Community Protection Monitoring Report, Snow Ridge Park area 07/04/17
Booking report and photograph: DAVIES, MARC
Supplemental report: Officer Wilcox, John
Note: AnticiPol predictive algorithms, IIRS and UPCORP data are proprietary and unavailable for evidence review per their respective rightsholders and/or the Colorado Revised Statutes.